SUBSURFACE LANDFILL FIRE
SUPPRESSION AND MONITORING
A Case Study at the Campbell
Mountain Landfill, Penticton, British Columbia
Fire Suppression Plan.
The fundamental principal behind the development of the fire suppression
plan was the removal of one of the links of the Fire Triangle.
The fire triangle indicates that in order for a fire to be created,
a fuel source, an ignition source or high temperatures, and ad
oxygen supply are required.
When considering the
alternatives within the scope of this project, the fuel source
(being the refuse) could not be economically removed, there was
no room to stockpile extinguished material, an open excavation
would fuel the fire and possibly allow it to migrate quickly towards
the main landfill, large amounts of leachate would be generated,
and the excavation process would place workers in hazardous conditions.
With respect to the source of the ignition, it was not clearly
known what the source of ignition was, and therefore it could
not be treated (although hydrogen sulfide reacting with metal
or elevated temperatures associated with sludge decomposition
are definite possibilities). The only alternative remaining was
to eliminate the oxygen supply to the fire.
The fire suppression
plan that was developed consisted of the following three phases:
Phase 1 - Install
an impervious clay cap over the landfill crest in conjunction
with shotcrete seals along with the edges.
Phase 2 - Install
a membrane cap over the clay cover once ground conditions are
stabilized, vents are eliminated and no hot spots remain.
Phase 3 - Install
a grout seal at the landfill crest.
In order to minimize
the possible costs, the plan was to implement each phase sequentially
and to proceed to the next phase only if monitoring indicated
that the fire was not subsiding. Each phase was therefore designed
to compliment the existing works and to further decrease the possibility
of atmospheric air entering the landfill.
the monitoring plan